A control mechanism for intra-mural periarterial drainage via astrocytes: How neuronal activity could improve waste clearance from the brain.

Diem KA, Carare RO, Weller RO, Bressloff NW.

Lymphatic Drainage of the CNS and Its Role in Neuroinflammation and Neurodegenerative Disease.

Weller RO, Carare RO.

The association between hypertensive arteriopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats.

Solveig J, Garz C, Schwanke D, Sendtner M, Heinze HJ, Carare RO, Schreiber S

Convective influx/glymphatic system: tracers injected into the CSF enter and leave the brain along separate periarterial basement membrane pathways.

Albargothy NJ, Johnston DA, MacGregor Sharp M, Weller RO, Verma A, Hawkes CA, Carare RO.

Small vessels, dementia and chronic diseases – molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology.

Horsburgh K, Wardlaw JM, van Agtmael T, Allan SM, Ashford MLJ, Bath Philip M, et al.

The meninges as barriers and facilitators for the movement of fluid, cells and pathogens related to the rodent and human CNS.

Weller RO, MacGregor Sharp M, Christodoulides M, Carare RO, Møllgård K.

The fine anatomy of the perivascular compartment in the brain. Relevance to dilated perivascular spaces in cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

MacGregor Sharp M, Bulters D, Brandner S, Holton J, Verma A, Carare R.O, Werring D.


Inhibition of Aquaporin-4 Improves the Outcome of Ischaemic Stroke and Modulates Brain Paravascular Drainage Pathways.

Pirici I, Balsanu T, Bogdan C, Margaritescu C, Divan T, Vitalie V, et al.

Editorial: Clearance Pathways for Amyloid-β. Significance for Alzheimer’s Disease and Its Therapy.

Carare RO.

The perivascular pathways for influx of cerebrospinal fluid are most efficient in the midbrain.

Dobson H, MacGregor Sharp M, Cumpsty R, Criswell TP, Wellman T, Finucane C, et al.

The structure of the perivascular compartment in the old canine brain: a case study.

Criswell TP, MacGregor Sharp M, Dobson H, Finucane C, Weller RO, Verma A, et al

The increasing impact of cerebral amyloid angiopathy: essential new insights for clinical practice.

Banerjee G, Carare R, Cordonnier C, Greenberg SM, Schneider JA, Smith EE, et al.

Arterial pulsations cannot drive intramural periarterial drainage: Significance for Aβ drainage.

Diem A.K, MacGregor Sharp M, Gatherer M, Bressloff N.W, Carare R.O & Richardson G.

Hypercholesterolemia induced cerebral small vessel disease.

Kraft P, Schuhmann MK, Garz C, Jandke S, Urlaub D, Mencl S, et al.

Loss of clusterin shifts amyloid deposition to the cerebrovasculature via disruption of perivascular drainage pathways.

Wojtas AM, Kang SS, Olley BM, Gatherer M, Shinohara M, Lozano PA, et al.

Vascular basement membrane alterations and β-amyloid accumulations in an animal model of cerebral small vessel disease.

Held F, Morris AWJ, Pirici D, Niklass S, MacGregor Sharp M, Garz C, et al.

The movers and shapers in immune privilege of the CNS.

Engelhardt B, Vajkoczy P, Weller RO.

Quantitative assessment of cerebral basement membranes using electron microscopy.

MacGregor Sharp M, Page A, Morris AWJ, Weller RO, Carare RO.

Investigating the Lymphatic Drainage of the Brain: Essential Skills and Tools.

Albargothy JN, MacGregor Sharp M, Gatherer M, Morris AWJ, Weller RO, Hawkes CA, Carare RO.


Cerebrovascular pathology: the dark side of neurodegeneration.

Carare RO, Kalaria R.

Systems proteomic analysis reveals that Clusterin and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 3 increase in leptomeningeal arteries affected by cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Manousopoulou A, Gatherer M, Smith C, Nicoll JA, Woelk CH, Johnson M, Kalaria R, Attems J, Garbis SD, Carare RO.

Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system.

Engelhardt B, Carare RO, Bechmann B, Flügel A, Laman JD, Weller RO.

Pulsations with reflected boundary waves: a hydrodynamic reverse transport mechanism for perivascular drainage in the brain.

Coloma M, Schaffer JD, Carare RO, Chiarot PR, Huang P.

Vascular basement membranes as pathways for the passage of fluid into and out of the brain.

Morris AWJ, MacGregor Sharp M, Albargothy NJ, Hawkes CA, Verma A, Weller RO, Carare RO.

Hemisphere Asymmetry of Response to Pharmacologic Treatment in an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model.

Manousopoulou A, Saito S, Yamamoto Y, Al-Daghri NM, Ihara M, Carare RO, Garbis SD.

Lymphatic Clearance of the Brain: Perivascular, Paravascular and Significance for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Bakker E.N, Bacskai B.J, Arbel-Ornath M, Aldea R, Bedussi B, Morris A.W.J, Weller R.O, Carare R.O.

Increased Abeta pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet.

Nizari S, Carare RO, Hawkes CA.

A Simulation Model of Periarterial Clearance of Amyloid-beta from the Brain.

Diem AK, Tan M, Bressloff NW, Hawkes C, Morris AWJ, Weller RO, et al.


Chapter 19 – Pathophysiology of Lymphatic Drainage of the Central Nervous System: Implications for the Pathophysiology of Multiple Sclerosis.

Weller RO, Carare RO, Hawkes CA, Galea I.

Deposition of Amyloid β in the walls of human leptomeningeal arteries in relation to perivascular drainage pathways in cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Keable A, Fenna K, Yuen HM, Johnston DA, Smyth NR, Smith C, Salman R, Samarasekera N, Nicoll JAR, Attems J, Kalaria RN, Weller RO, Carare RO.

Quantification of molecular interactions between apoE, Amyloid-beta (Aβ) and laminin: Relevance to accumulation of Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease.

Zekonyte J, Sakai K, Nicoll J, Weller RO, Carare RO.

Clearance systems in the brain-implications for Alzheimer disease.

Tarasoff-Conway JM, Carare RO, Osorio RS, Glodzik L, Butler T, Fieremans E, Axel L, Rusinek H, Nicholson C, Zlokovic BV, Frangione B, Blennow K, Ménard J, Zetterberg H, Wisniewski T, de Leon MJ.

Does the difference between PART and Alzheimer’s disease lie in the age-related changes in cerebral arteries that trigger the accumulation of Aβ and propagation of tau?

Weller RO, Hawkes CA, Carare RO, Hardy J.

Peristalsis with oscillating flow resistance: A mechanism for periarterial clearance of amyloid beta from the brain.

Sharp, MK, Diem AK, Weller RO, Carare RO.

White matter changes in dementia: role of impaired drainage of interstitial fluid.

Weller RO, Hawkes CA, Kalaria RN, Werring DJ, Carare RO.

Are you also what your mother eats: Distinct proteomic portrait as a result of maternal high-fat diet in the cerebral cortex of the adult mouse.

Manousopoulou A, Woo J, Hawkes CA, Johnston H, Singhania A, Woelk CH, Garbis SD, Carare RO.

Are the effects of APOE ϵ4 on cognitive function in nonclinical populations age- and gender-dependent?

Rusted J & Carare RO.


Prenatal high fat diet alters the cerebrovasculature and clearance of beta-amyloid in adult offspring.

Hawkes CA, Gentleman S, Nicoll JAR, Carare RO.

The cerebrovascular basement membrane: role in the clearance of β-amyloid and Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

Morris A.W, Carare RO, Schreiber S, Hawkes CA.

Failure of perivascular drainage of beta-amyloid in cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Hawkes CA, Jayakody N, Johnston DA, Bechmann I, Carare RO.

Impact of N-acetylcysteine on cerebral parenchymal Aβ plaques and kidney damage in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats.

Bueche CZ, Garz C, Stanaszek L, Niklass S, Kropf S, Bittner D, Härtig W, Reymann KG, Heinze HJ, Carare RO, Schreiber S.

Aß immunotherapy for Alzheimer’s disease: effects on apoE and cerebral vasculopathy.

Sakai K, Boche D, Carare RO, Johnston D, Holmes C, Love S, Nicoll JAR.

Amyloid and tau in the brain in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease: defining the chicken and the egg.

Hawkes C, Carare RO, Weller RO.

Hypertension drives parenchymal ß-amyloid accumulation in the brain parenchyma.

Bueche CZ, Hawkes C, Garz C, Vielhaber S, Attems J, Knight RT, Reymann K, Heinze H, Carare R, Schreiber S.


MK886 reduces cerebral amyloid angiopathy severity in TgCRND8 mice.

Hawkes CA, Shaw JE, Brown MS, Anthony P, McLaurin J, Carare RO.

Immune complex formation impairs the elimination of solutes from the brain: implications for immunotherapy in Alzheimer’s disease.

Carare RO, Teeling J, Hawkes CA, Püntener U, Weller RO, Nicoll JAR, Perry V.

Regional differences in the morphological and functional effects of aging on cerebral basement membranes and perivascular drainage of amyloid-β from the mouse brain.

Hawkes CA, Gatherer M, Sharp MM, Dorr A, Yuen HM, Kalaria R, Weller RO, Carare RO.

Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (apoE4) may impair perivascular elimination of amyloid-beta (A beta).

Hawkes CA, Zekonyte J, Howard K, Nicoll JAR, Weller RO, Carare RO.


Hawkes, Cheryl A., Shaw, James E., Brown, Mary, Sampson, Anthony P., McLaurin, JoAnne and Carare, Roxana O. (2013) MK886 reduces cerebral amyloid angiopathy severity in TgCRND8 mice. Neurodegenerative Diseases, 1-7. (doi:10.1159/000351096). PMID: 24021653

Carare, Roxana, Teeling, Jessica, Hawkes, Cheryl A, Püntener, Ursula, Weller, Roy O, Nicoll, James AR and Perry, Victor. (2013) Immune complex formation impairs the elimination of solutes from the brain: implications for immunotherapy in Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neuropathologica, 1, (1), 48-[11pp]. (doi:10.1186/2051-5960-1-48). PMID: 24252464

Hawkes, C.A., Gatherer, M., Sharp, M.M., Dorr, A., Yuen, H.M., Kalaria, R., Weller, R.O. and Carare, R.O. (2013) Regional differences in the morphological and functional effects of aging on cerebral basement membranes and perivascular drainage of amyloid-β from the mouse brain. Aging Cell, 12, (2), 224-236. (doi:10.1111/acel.12045). PMID  23413811 

Hawkes, C.A., Zekonyte, J., Howard, K., Nicoll, James A.R., Weller, Roy O. and Carare, Roxana O. (2013) Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (apoE4) may impair perivascular elimination of amyloid-beta (A beta). Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 39, supplement 1, 8. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2990.2013.12029.x).


Hawkes, C.A., Sullivan, P.M., Hands, S., Weller, R.O., Nicoll, J.A.R. and Carare, Roxana O. (2012) Disruption of arterial perivascular drainage of amyloid-ß from the brains of mice expressing the human APOE e4 allele. PLoS ONE, 9, (8), 890-901. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041636). PMID: 22848551

Teeling, Jessica L., Carare, Roxana O., Glennie, Martin J. and Perry, V. Hugh. (2012) Intracerebral immune complex formation induces inflammation in the brain that depends on Fc receptor interaction. Acta Neuropathologica, 124, (4), 479-490. (doi:10.1007/s00401-012-0995-3). PMID: 22618994


Hawkes, Cheryl A., Härtig, Wolfgang, Kacza, Johannes, Schliebs, Reinhard, Weller, Roy O., Nicoll, James A.R. and Carare, Roxana O. (2011) Perivascular drainage of solutes is impaired in the ageing mouse brain and in the presence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Acta Neuropathologica, 121, (4), 431-443. (doi:10.1007/s00401-011-0801-7). (PMID:21259015). PMID:  21259015

Coleman, Peter G., Carare, Roxana O., Petrov, Ignat, Forbes, Elizabeth, Saigal, Anita, Spreadbury, John H., Yap, Andrea and Kendrick, Tony. (2011) Spiritual belief, social support, physical functioning and depression among older people in Bulgaria and Romania. Aging & Mental Health, 15, (3), 327-333. (doi:10.1080/13607863.2010.519320). PMID: 21491217

2010 – 2000:

Clapham, R., O’Sullivan, E., Weller, Roy and Carare, Roxana Octavia. (2009) Cervical lymph nodes are found in direct relationship with the internal carotid artery: Significance for the lymphatic drainage of the brain. Clinical Anatomy, 23, (1), 43-47. (doi:10.1002/ca.20887). PMID: 19918869

Carare, Roxana-Octavia, Preston , S.D., Subash, M. and Weller, R.O. (2009) Cerebral amyloid angiopathy in the aetiology and immunotherapy of Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy, 1, (2) (doi:10.1186/alzrt6). PMID: 19822028

Weller, Roy O., Djuanda, Effie., Yow, Hong-Yeen and Carare, Roxana O. (2009) Lymphatic drainage of the brain and the pathophysiology of neurological disease. Acta Neuropathologica, 117, (1), 1-14. (doi:10.1007/s00401-008-0457-0). PMID: 19002474

Weller, R.O., Boche, D. & Nicoll, J.A. Microvasculature changes and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer’s disease and their potential impact on therapy. Acta Neuropathol, 87-102 (2009).

Keage, H.A., et al. Population studies of sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy and dementia: a systematic review. BMC Neuro, 3 (2009).

Campbell, S.J., Carare-Nnadi, R.O., Losey, P.H. and Anthony, D.C. (2007) Loss of atypical inflammatory response in juvenile and aged rats. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 33, (1), 108-120. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2990.2006.00773.x). PMID 17239013

Schley, D., Carare-Nnadi, R., Please, C.P., Perry, V.H. and Weller, R.O. (2006) Mechanisms to explain the reverse perivascular transport of solutes out of the brain. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 238, (4), 962-974. (doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2005.07.005). PMID: 16112683

O’Sullivan, E., Carare-Nnadi, R., Greenslade, J. and Bowyer, G. (2005) Clinical significance of variations in the nterconnections between flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus in the region of the knot of Henry. Clinical Anatomy, 18, (2), 121-125. (doi:10.1002/ca.20029). PMID: 15696523

Li, R., et al. Glial fibrillary acidic protein mutations in infantile, juvenile, and adult forms of Alexander disease. Ann Neurol 57, 310-326 (2005).

Salzman, K.L., et al. Giant tumefactive perivascular spaces. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 298-305 (2005).

Weller, R.O. & Nicoll, J.A. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: both viper and maggot in the brain. Ann Neurol 58, 348-350 (2005).

Weller, R.O. Microscopic morphology and histology of the human meninges. Morphologie 89, 22-34 (2005).

Weller, R.O., Cohen, N.R. & Nicoll, J.A. Cerebrovascular disease and the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Implications for therapy. Panminerva Med, 239-251 (2004).

Horstmann, S., et al. Genetic and expression profiles of cerebellar liponeurocytomas. Brain Pathol 14, 281-289 (2004).

Sun, D., Newman, T.A., Perry, V.H. & Weller, R.O. Cytokine-induced enhancement of autoimmune inflammation in the brain and spinal cord: implications for multiple sclerosis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 30, 374-384 (2004).

Nicoll, J.A., Yamada, M., Frackowiak, J., Mazur-Kolecka, B. & Weller, R.O. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy plays a direct role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Pro-CAA position statement. Neurobiol Aging 25, 589-597; discussion 603-584 (2004).

Preece, N.E., Houseman, J., King, M.D., Weller, R.O. & Williams, S.R. Development of vigabatrin-induced lesions in the rat brain studied by magnetic resonance imaging, histology, and immunocytochemistry. Synapse 53, 36-43 (2004).

Fowler, M.I., Weller, R.O., Heckels, J.E. & Christodoulides, M. Different meningitis-causing bacteria induce distinct inflammatory responses on interaction with cells of the human meninges. Cell Microbiol 6, 555-567 (2004).

R.O. & Nicoll, J.A. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: pathogenesis and effects on the ageing and Alzheimer brain. Neurological research 25, 611-616 (2003).

Nicoll, J.A. & Weller, R.O. A new role for astrocytes: beta-amyloid homeostasis and degradation. Trends Mol Med 9, 281-282 (2003).

Hien, T.T., et al. Neuropathological assessment of artemether-treated severe malaria. Lancet 362, 295-296 (2003).

Roher, A.E., et al. Cortical and leptomeningeal cerebrovascular amyloid and white matter pathology in Alzheimer’s disease. Mol Med 9, 112-122 (2003).

Zhang, B., et al. Molecular pathogenesis of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 35, 1341-1360 (2003).

Preston, S.D., Steart, P.V., Wilkinson, A., Nicoll, J.A. & Weller, R.O. Capillary and arterial cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer’s disease: defining the perivascular route for the elimination of amyloid beta from the human brain. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 29, 106-117 (2003). 

Nicoll, J.A., et al. Neuropathology of human Alzheimer disease after immunization with amyloid-beta peptide: a case report. Nat Med 9, 448-452 (2003).

Weller, R.O., Yow, H.Y., Preston, S.D., Mazanti, I. & Nicoll, J.A. Cerebrovascular disease is a major factor in the failure of elimination of Abeta from the aging human brain: implications for therapy of Alzheimer’s disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 977, 162-168 (2002).

Christodoulides, M., et al. Interaction of Neisseria meningitidis with human meningeal cells induces the secretion of a distinct group of chemotactic, proinflammatory, and growth-factor cytokines. Infect Immun 70, 4035-4044 (2002).

The evolution of A beta peptide burden in the APP23 transgenic mice: implications for A beta deposition in Alzheimer disease. Mol Med 7, 609-618 (2001).

Hilton, D.A. & Weller, R.O. Autopsy investigation of disorders of skeletal muscle and peripheral nerves. Curr Top Pathol 95, 207-238 (2001).

Weller, R.O. & Preston, S.D. The spectrum of vascular disease in dementia. From ischaemia to amyloid angiopathy. Adv Exp Med Biol 487, 111-122 (2001).

Weller, R.O. How well does the CSF inform upon pathology in the brain in Creutzfeldt-Jakob and Alzheimer’s diseases? J Pathol 194, 1-3 (2001).

Weller, R.O. XlVth International Congress of Neuropathology, 3-6 September, 2000, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Brain Pathol 11, 250-258 (2001).

Sun, D., et al. Role of chemokines, neuronal projections, and the blood-brain barrier in the enhancement of cerebral EAE following focal brain damage. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 59, 1031-1043 (2000).

Kuo, Y.M., et al. Elevated A beta and apolipoprotein E in A betaPP transgenic mice and its relationship to amyloid accumulation in Alzheimer’s disease. Mol Med 6, 430-439 (2000).

Hardy, S.J., Christodoulides, M., Weller, R.O. & Heckels, J.E. Interactions of Neisseria meningitidis with cells of the human meninges. Mol Microbiol 36, 817-829 (2000).

Weller, R.O., Massey, A., Kuo, Y.M. & Roher, A.E. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: accumulation of A beta in interstitial fluid drainage pathways in Alzheimer’s disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 903, 110-117 (2000).